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PUSH & PULL implemented measures to reduce car and energy use and bring about a shift to more energy efficient modes in 8 EU cities. It did this by combining the highly effective push measure of parking management with tried and tested techniques for mobility management, and brought in further innovation by using the revenue raised from the former to help to finance the latter. The two were connected by the theme of finance (the revenues from parking management to fund mobility management).

The mobility management activities, campaigns and measures were carried out to influence the perception of options for alternatives (to inform and raise awareness) and then, together with parking management, gave car users the opportunity to try out new travel choices (experimental behaviour). Additionally, the introduction of mobility management measures at the same time as parking management measures was intended to enhance the public acceptability of the latter.

Target groups

The three major target groups of the project were

  • authorities / municipal staff,
  • decision makers & politicians and
  • end users.

For them information and arguments were provided with the aim to develop skills and capacities.

Stakeholder involvement

To maximise the impact of the practice and exchange of views between the stakeholders Urban Local Support Groups ULSGs were installed at all cities with the aim to ensure that ideas emerging from the project are implemented – especially regarding the design and the implementation of the core-funding mechanism between parking space management and sustainable transport measures and concept for establishment of a self-sustaining process are realistic and acceptable from all players.

Core funding mechanism

The main strategic objective of PUSH & PULL was that the revenue earned from parking management should be used for the implementation and promotion of sustainable transport measures.

Capacity building

Within PUSH&PULL a number of training sessions have been delivered in 16 countries. Training materials that were used at these sessions have been developed and collected but which are also capable of stand-alone delivery for self-study via the internet or by third parties.