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Municipality of Krakow



Country:  Poland
City:  Krakow
Number of inhabitants:  760.000
 Area: 326,85 km²
 Population density:  2322/km²


Located in southern Poland and with ca. 760,000 inhabitants, Krakow is the second largest city in the country. It welcomes around 8 million tourists each year and hosts ca. 150,000 students. Despite growing car ownership, Krakow still demonstrates a very positive modal split with approx. 50% of all journeys being made by public transport (trams and buses). However, city growth, increasing vehicle numbers, the desire for greater mobility and years of neglecting road maintenance, have made road infrastructure and public transport the most challenging policy areas in Krakow. Krakow has introduced a paid parking zone in the city center many years ago (late 80’s). The zone is functioning properly and provides income to the road administration and prevents people from long-term parking in the area. Drivers have to pay from Monday to Friday, from 10:00 until 20:00. Recently the “C” zone has been divided into smaller zones – P1 – P8 and enlarged, mainly covering the old Jewish district – Kazimierz and districts of Podgórze and Dębniki.



The main PUSH measures in Krakow included further extension of the paid parking zone. During the project lifetime, 2 new areas were introduced. Originally, it was planned to create buffer zones, but due to legal constraints (it is not possible for municipalities in Poland to stagger the level of parking fees), new areas became fully-paid parking zones. This measure affected mainly drivers commuting to the city center and inhabitants, customers and people working in the vicinity of the controlled parking zones.
The second most important PUSH measure was the introduction of the program aiming to reduce footway parking in the city center. It was implemented due to opening of 2 municipally-owned parking lots in the vicinity of the city center. In some cases, the programme was implemented purely based on the rule of leaving at least 1.5 m for pedestrians. In other cases, some on-street parking spaces were eliminated only in some time-windows (allowing deliveries, or making possible to park on certain days of the week).The measure had a big promotional effect as well, influencing drivers’ behavior and targeting illegal parking and bad conditions for pedestrians and cyclists in the city centre.

• Introduction of new bicycle parking stands – for ca. 1,000 bikes.
• Mobility management information for new residents of Krakow.
• Actions to promote bike sharing service (called Wavelo) with the combination of using parking lots outside historical center of Krakow.
• A campaign on the use of a new P&R scheme with combination with tram lines operating into the city center.
• Campaigns (linked to European Mobility Week) to promote proper on-street parking and promoting use of new underground parking lots.



The City of Krakow decided to implement the core funding mechanism, as an act of local law, particularly by decree of the Mayor of Krakow. Despite, due to legal constraints, the act being more general and giving some flexibility (i.e. according to currently available legal possibilities to the municipalities), the main message is that every year, during the making of the new budget, 20% of the income from the paid parking zone will be “earmarked” in the new budget as a funding source for sustainable mobility modes. It will cover mainly promotional activities, but also infrastructure and equipment, (i.e. bicycle racks, mobile services, improvements in walking environment, etc.). Taking into account that the income from the paid parking zone is ca. 40 million polish zloty per year, this means 8 million zloty for sustainable modes – which is generally more than the money dedicated for example to separated cycle lanes before the PUSH & PULL project (ca. 2-3 mln/year).

The main issues during the preparation and implementation of the core funding  mechanism were related to the complicated consultation and discussion process. Many municipal departments had to be involved in the process, but what was most important, the general idea of and the willingness to establish this funding mechanism were widely
approved. The process was inline with the preparation and adoption of the new transport policy for Krakow, therefore many discussions
about sustainable mobility and necessity to strengthen the role of especially “weaker” modes like walking and cycling were held.



The most successful measure was related to the enlargement of the paid parking zones. The main factors infl uencing this process were the high public acceptance and support from district councils, inhabitants and businesses (ca. 300 signatures of inhabitants were collected). General acceptance for this kind of push measures could be observed during the project lifetime. A lively  discussion among councilors was held and a very positive voting result was achieved, with 26 votes supporting the changes and only 4 against them. Another highlight is the increasing the awareness on the overall problems of parking/congestion in the centre and other issues. The other successful measure was the removal of a high number of parking spaces on-street, thanks to new possibilities to park off-street, but also due to strong pressure to improve walking and cycling conditions in the city centre.
Generally speaking, PUSH & PULL parking measures were strongly connected to the overall urban transport developments
in the city, and can be treated as an important tool for the implementation of a new transport policy for Krakow (adopted in July 2015).



• Almost 3,000 parking spaces became paid (within 2 new areas)
• Almost 500 parking spaces eliminated from streets and pavements
• Ca. 15% increase in number of cars parking off-street (incl. underground)
• Ca. 10% decrease in number of bicycles parking informally


Get the report on implemented measures in Krakow here

Get the Fact Sheet on Parking Space Management and the Implementation of the Core Funding Mechanism in Krakow here

and in Polish here