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Urban Planning Institute of the Republic of Slovenia



Country:  Slovenia
City:  Ljubljana
Number of inhabitants:  279,826 (year 2013)
 Area:  163.8 km2
 Population density:  1,678/km2


Ljubljana is the capital of Slovenia with around 290,000 inhabitants. According to data from 2014 most of the trips on workdays within the city are made by car. Residents are using cars for 42% of their journeys, 35% are done on foot, 11% by bicycle and 13% by public transport. As a capital and a university city Ljubljana attracts a lot of daily commuters (more than 100,000) and 90% of them travel by car (data for 2010).



Paid parking for employees was implemented as a complex measure with three aims: to prepare and adopt a parking policy, to start charging for parking at the faculties and to put in place a core funding mechanism. Throughout the process representatives from the faculties such as secretaries, deans, technicians, human resources managers, financial administration and management boards of both faculties were directly involved. Employees were involved and informed through internal web page, emails, public presentations, interviews and surveys. A slightly different parking policy was prepared for each faculty and the documents were formally adopted in spring 2016 while the test period of paid parking for employees started on June 1st 2016. Since there was no shortage of parking spaces very low fees were introduced in order to minimize opposition from employees. One faculty charges € 0,5 for each day when the employee uses the parking space but no more than € 8,0 per month, while the other faculty charges a flat rate of € 8,0 per month. However, these differences will also allow for monitoring and comparing the two approaches in the  future.


  • Travel plan for the faculties.
  • Bicycle friendly employer scheme.
  • Information package for students and employees.
  • Bike to work campaign in summer 2015 and spring 2016.



The core funding mechanism for the faculties in Ljubljana was implemented as a part of the new parking policy which was prepared and officially adopted within the PUSH&PULL project. The faculties stated that they would each year use 15% or more (but never less) of the annual amount of revenues for improving conditions for sustainable travel modes.

Since there is no shortage of parking spaces on-site, there is no immediate need to introduce parking policy. However, because the co-funder of the new premises (the European Union) put a condition that parking should be charged, the PUSH&PULL project provided a good solution at the right time. The latter condition was communicated to the employees throughout the project duration to ensure as little discontent as possible. During the parking policy implementation process, all leading bodies were involved in reviewing, approving and officially adopting the document. These included the deans, the management boards and the financial administration. One common parking policy was planned at first but in the end each faculty adopted its own document with slightly different content.

Three main problems had to be addressed. The first two were poor accessibility of the location using sustainable travel modes and an excess of parking spaces. The accessibility issue was addressed by appropriate measures within the travel plan. The reasons for paid parking despite the excess of parking spaces was justified by communicating unequal existing conditions for different travel
modes. Car users were simply preferred regarding access. The third problem was concerned with the process itself since preparing
and adopting the parking policy was much slower than planned. The main reasons were slow response time from the faculties (often more than a month), delays due to reconciliation within the faculties’ headquarters and upon the content of the document. Faculties also needed time to recognize the benefits of the proposed parking policy. This problem was overcome with patience since pressure on the faculties would only have resulted in further delays and unresponsiveness.



By implementing paid parking for employees, adopting a parking policy and the core funding mechanism, the faculties became one of the first public employers in the country having such a scheme. The success is so much greater because there is no shortage of parking spaces at the site. Furthermore, in the case of Slovenia, the PUSH&PULL project came at the right time to have a  nationwide impact. During the lifetime of the project the principle of the core funding mechanism was already implemented by a municipality administration which learned about the PUSH&PULL approach. UIRS also included the approach as a measure in the draft travel plan for the city administration of Ljubljana. Furthermore, there is a great potential in another 60 municipalities in Slovenia that are currently preparing SUMPs within the national SUMP preparation programme. The PUSH&PULL approach was promoted amongst all these municipalities and presented in early 2016.



  • During the test period around 5% of the employees have used their car less than before. The most favourite alternative mode is bicycle.
  • Take up of PUSH&PULL measures in several Slovenian municipalities

Get the report on implemented measures in Ljubljana here

Get the Fact Sheet on Parking Space Management and the Implementation of the Core Funding Mechanism in Ljubljana here

and in Slovenian here